How Do Wells Work For a House

The benefits of having wells at home are things that have been “preached” for so many years. Finally, people are now starting to embrace the idea and actually building water wells in their compounds. Even so, there is still a large number of people who are in the dark when it comes to the issue of water wells. This makes them reluctant to construct wells as they have a lot of unanswered questions regarding the same. Today, we will tackle some of these queries.

What is a Well?

Before we get into the question of the day, you need to be conversant with the basics. Therefore, we will start with defining what a well is and explaining a thing or two about wells.

A well is described as a structure created by digging a hole underground to reach the water table. The hole might be a few hundred feet deep or even thousands, depending on the location.

Initially, wells were manually dug, and they were very wide and dangerous. Constructing such wells could take some months or even years, and the promise of finding water was not always certain.

Nowadays, with the introduction of proper water well services, you can easily access underground water.  Some home owners try geothermal drilling service to get underground water safe to use for drinking and other household purposes like washing, watering your shrubs, or filling your pool.

Modernized wells are dug by sinking a small shaft to the ground to the aquifer. An aquifer is an underground water basin. The next step involves installing pipes and a pump to push water to the surface. The pump plays a critical role here as it saves on time and energy used in the process.

Types of Wells

There are three main types of wells classified according to how they are constructed. These wells are as follows;

1. Driven well

This is a shallow hole approximately 50ft deep driven to the underground water table.

Driven wells are common in areas with shallow aquifers and are pretty simple and cheap.

2. Dug wells

In the event that the water table is close to the surface, you can hack the ground to reach it through a dug well. Historically, dug wells were excavated manually using pickaxes and shovels. The wells were then reinforced with bricks and mortar to prevent them from collapsing.

3. Drilled wells

Drilled wells are regarded as the most modern and sophisticated wells on earth. They are also among the most common water wells we have today. Statistics show that there are around 15.9 million of them in the US alone.

The construction of drilled wells is usually done using rotary drilling machines. The wells are known to reach up to 1000 feet in depth.

Despite being expensive and meticulous to build, water from drilled wells is safe for drinking. This might explain their massive popularity across the world.

How Do Wells Work for a House?

Now that you have understood what a well is and gone through the different types, let’s learn how they function.

Well water systems have different parts that are designed to carry out specific roles. Typical residential systems have a tank, pump, pipes, and connecting wires.

After drilling the well, a pipe is placed in the middle of the well down to the aquifer. Between the well’s wall and the pipe, cement or bentonite clay is added. Doing so forms a tight seal that will prevent underground water from being contaminated.

Professionals like EWBank Drilling then install a submersible pump to suck out water to the surface. The submersible pump is accompanied by connecting wires to power it. The size of the pump selected depends on the quantity of water needed and the depth of the well. Deeper wells are known to require more powerful pumps.

The system also includes a tank above the ground to pressure the water. Other than pressurizing water, the tank also stores it to prevent frequent pumping. From the tanks, the water flows through pipes to kitchen faucets, showers, and garden taps.

From our above explanation, the process of getting water from the ground to the glass is quite simple. But, we need to understand more about significant parts of a well that are often overlooked. One of these parts is a screen. A screen is a device placed near the bottom of the well to filter out sediments and soil particles. Another component is a cap, which is placed at the top of the well. The cap prevents debris and small animals from falling through the opening at the top of the well.

Why is Well Water So Good?

Here are some reasons that make water from wells a top choice for many;

  • Water from drilled wells contains fewer contaminants and pathogens that may cause diseases. This is all thanks to a natural filtration process that usually takes place in the well and kills microorganisms. What is left after that is clean water that is safe for consumption.
  • Groundwater has essential minerals such as magnesium and calcium. Calcium strengthens bones and teeth. Magnesium, on the other hand, is believed to sponsor more than 300 biochemical reactions. It also supports immunity, nerve and muscle functions.
  • Well water is available all year round, even during the cold seasons. This is so because it is buried hundreds of feet underground, thereby preventing it from freezing out. This then makes the water remain in liquid form and accessible throughout. The water is also not affected by storms that are known to destroy municipal pipes.

How is a Water Well Constructed?

Construction begins by identifying a suitable location for drilling. For this, you will need a hydrologist. Hydrologists are experts who study how water moves across the earth’s crusts. In most cases, drilling companies come with their hydrologists. So the cost of hiring a hydrologist will be included in the total price of drilling the well.

Once the proper spot has been identified, construction is scheduled to take place. The process of constructing the well differs depending on the type one would like.

In most cases, people go for drilled wells. So, in this case, just like we explained earlier, a heavy rotary driller or cable tool is put in place to bore through the earth’s surface. This might take a few days since, along the way, bedrocks slow the drilling process.

Lastly, experts will sink a water pipe into the hole and connect it to a submersible pump. A cap will then seal the top for security reasons.


Wells are generally known to be great additions to homes just like the red front door. Even so, before getting one, is it normal for people to ask questions for clarification purposes. We understand that. We hope that we have helped you grasp vital concepts about wells and that they will no longer bother you.

Now, if the thought of getting a water well for your home has been crossing your mind, it may be time to stop thinking and actually get one. Doing so will help you enjoy all the merits that come with using water from wells. At least you will be able to attest to the fantastic quality of well water instead of just hearing stories from other people.

Diego Martinez

Diego Martinez, with a Bachelor’s in Mechanical Engineering from MIT, has been a leading figure in maintenance and facilities management for 16 years. He joined our editorial team in 2020, sharing his expertise in preventative maintenance, system optimization, and energy efficiency. Diego’s previous roles include engineering manager in manufacturing and consulting for facility management. He has provided practical advice and problem-solving strategies for maintenance issues. He is an enthusiastic cyclist and volunteers in community tech education programs.

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